哈佛大学2017毕业典礼校长福斯特的演讲
文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2017-06-12 08:39 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
(单词翻译:双击或拖选)
Good afternoon. My remarks at this moment in our Commencement rituals are officially titled a "Report to the Alumni." The first time I delivered them, in 2008, I was the only obstacle between all of you and J.K. Rowling. I looked out on a sea of eager children, costumed Dumbledores, and Quidditch brooms waving impatiently in the air. Today, you await Mark Zuckerberg, whose wizardry takes a different form, one that has changed the world, and although he doesn't seem to have inspired an outbreak of hoodies, we certainly do have some costumes in this audience today. I see we are now handing out blankets.
 
This is a day of joy and celebration, of happy endings and new beginnings, of families and friends, of achievements and hopes. It is also a day when we as a university perform our most important annual ritual, affirming once again the purposes that animate1 us and the values that direct and inspire us.
 
I want to speak today about one of the most important - and in recent months, most contested - of these values. It is one that has provoked debate, dissent2, confrontation3, and even violence on campuses across the country, and one that has attracted widespread public attention and criticism.
 
I am, of course, talking about issues of free speech on university campuses. The meaning and limits of free speech are questions deeply embedded4 in our legal system, in interpretations5 of the First Amendment6 and its applications. I am no constitutional lawyer, indeed no lawyer at all, and I do not intend in my brief remarks today to address complex legal doctrines7. Nor, clearly, can I in a few brief minutes take on even a fraction of the arguments that have been advanced on this issue. Instead, I speak as one who has been a university president for a decade in order to raise three questions:
 
First: Why is free speech so important to and at universities?
 
Second: Why does it seem under special challenge right now?
 
And, third: How might we better address these challenges by moving beyond just defensively protecting free speech - which, of course, we must do - to actively8 and affirmatively enabling it and nurturing9 environments in which it can thrive?
 
So first: Why is free speech so important to and at universities? This is a question I took up with the newly arrived first-year students in the College when I welcomed them at Convocation last fall. For centuries, I told them, universities have been environments in which knowledge has been discovered, collected, studied, debated, expanded, changed, and advanced through the power of rational argument and exchange. We pursue truth unrelentingly, but we must never be so complacent10 as to believe we have unerringly attained11 it. Veritas is inspiration and aspiration12. We assume there is always more to know and discover so we open ourselves to challenge and change. We must always be ready to be wrong, so being part of a university community requires courage and humility13. Universities must be places open to the kind of debate that can change ideas and committed to standards of reason and evidence that form the bases for evaluating them.
 
Silencing ideas or basking14 in intellectual orthodoxy independent of facts and evidence impedes15 our access to new and better ideas, and it inhibits16 a full and considered rejection17 of bad ones. From at least the time of Galileo, we can see how repressing seemingly heretical ideas has blinded societies and nations to the enhanced knowledge and understanding on which progress depend. Far more recently, we can see here at Harvard how our inattentiveness to the power and appeal of conservative voices left much of our community astonished - blindsided by the outcome of last fall's election. We must work to ensure that universities do not become bubbles isolated18 from the concerns and discourse19 of the society that surrounds them.
 
Universities must model a commitment to the notion that truth cannot simply be claimed, but must be established - established through reasoned argument, assessment20, and even sometimes uncomfortable challenges that provide the foundation for truth. The legitimacy21 of universities' claim to be sources and validators of fact depends on our willingness to actively and vigorously defend those facts. And we must remember that limiting some speech opens the dangerous possibility that the speech that is ultimately censored22 may be our own. If some words are to be treated as equivalent to physical violence and silenced or even prosecuted23, who is to decide which words? Freedom of expression, as Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes famously said long ago, protects not only free thought for those who agree with us but freedom for the thought we hate. We need to hear those hateful ideas so our society is fully24 equipped to oppose and defeat them.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Over the years, differences about the implementation25 of the University's free speech principles have often provoked controversy26. And we haven't always gotten it right. As long ago as 1939, an invitation from a student group to the head of the American Communist Party generated protest and the invitation was ultimately canceled by the Corporation. Bertrand Russell's appointment as William James Lecturer just a year later divided the Corporation, but President Conant broke the tie and Russell came. Campus conflicts over invited speakers are hardly new.
 
Yet the vehemence27 with which these issues have been debated in recent months, not just on campuses but in the broader public sphere, suggests there is something distinctive28 about this moment. Certainly, these controversies29 reflect a highly polarized political and social environment - perhaps the most divisive since the era of the Civil War. And in these already fractious circumstances, free speech debates have provided a fertile substrate into which anger and disagreement could be planted to nourish partisan30 outrage31 and generate media clickbait. But that is only a partial explanation.
 
Universities themselves have changed dramatically in recent years, reaching beyond their traditional, largely homogeneous populations to become more diverse than perhaps any other institution in which Americans find themselves living together. Once overwhelmingly white, male, Protestant, and upper class, Harvard College is now half female, majority minority, religiously pluralistic, with nearly 60 percent of students able to attend because of financial aid. Fifteen percent are the first in their families to go to college. Many of our students struggle to feel full members of this community - a community in which people like them have so recently arrived. They seek evidence and assurance that - to borrow the title of a powerful theatrical32 piece created by a group of our African-American students - evidence and assurance that they, too, are Harvard.
 
The price of our commitment to freedom of speech is paid disproportionately by these students. For them, free speech has not infrequently included enduring a questioning of their abilities, their humanity, their morality - their very legitimacy here. Our values and our theory of education rest on the assumption that members of our community will take the risk of speaking and will actively compete in our wild rumpus of argument and ideas. It requires them as well to be fearless in face of argument or challenge or even verbal insult. And it expects that fearlessness even when the challenge is directed to the very identity - race, religion, gender33, ethnicity, sexual orientation34, nationality - that may have made them uncertain about their right to be here in the first place. Demonstrating such fearlessness is hard; no one should be mocked as a snowflake for finding it so.
 
Hard, but important and attainable35. Attainable, we believe, for every member of our community. But the price of free speech cannot be charged just to those most likely to become its target. We must support and empower the voices of all the members of our community and nurture36 the courage and humility that our commitment to unfettered debate demands from all of us. And that courage means not only resilience in face of challenge or attack, but strength to speak out against injustices37 directed at others as well.
 
Free speech doesn't just happen and require intervention38 when it is impeded39. It is not about the freedom to out-shout others while everyone has their fingers in their ears. For free speech to flourish, we must build an environment where everyone takes responsibility for the right not just to speak, but to hear and be heard, where everyone assumes the responsibility to treat others with dignity and respect. It requires not just speakers, but, in the words of James Ryan, dean of our Graduate School of Education, generous listeners. Amidst the current soul-searching about free speech, we need to devote more attention to establishing the conditions in which everyone's speech is encouraged and taken seriously.
 
Ensuring freedom of speech is not just about allowing speech. It is about actively creating a community where everyone can contribute and flourish, a community where argument is relished40, not feared. Freedom of speech is not just freedom from censorship; it is freedom to actively join the debate as a full participant. It is about creating a context in which genuine debate can happen.
 
Talk a lot, I urged the Class of 2020 last fall; listen more. Don't stand safely on the sidelines; take the risk of being wrong. It is the best way to learn and grow. And build a culture of generous listening so that others may be emboldened41 to take risks, too. A community in a shared search for Veritas - that is the ideal for which Harvard must strive. We need it now more than ever.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Thank you.


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 animate 3MDyv     
v.赋于生命,鼓励;adj.有生命的,有生气的
参考例句:
  1. We are animate beings,living creatures.我们是有生命的存在,有生命的动物。
  2. The girls watched,little teasing smiles animating their faces.女孩们注视着,脸上挂着调皮的微笑,显得愈加活泼。
2 dissent ytaxU     
n./v.不同意,持异议
参考例句:
  1. It is too late now to make any dissent.现在提出异议太晚了。
  2. He felt her shoulders gave a wriggle of dissent.他感到她的肩膀因为不同意而动了一下。
3 confrontation xYHy7     
n.对抗,对峙,冲突
参考例句:
  1. We can't risk another confrontation with the union.我们不能冒再次同工会对抗的危险。
  2. After years of confrontation,they finally have achieved a modus vivendi.在对抗很长时间后,他们最后达成安宁生存的非正式协议。
4 embedded lt9ztS     
a.扎牢的
参考例句:
  1. an operation to remove glass that was embedded in his leg 取出扎入他腿部玻璃的手术
  2. He has embedded his name in the minds of millions of people. 他的名字铭刻在数百万人民心中。
5 interpretations a61815f6fe8955c9d235d4082e30896b     
n.解释( interpretation的名词复数 );表演;演绎;理解
参考例句:
  1. This passage is open to a variety of interpretations. 这篇文章可以有各种不同的解释。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  2. The involved and abstruse passage makes several interpretations possible. 这段艰涩的文字可以作出好几种解释。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
6 amendment Mx8zY     
n.改正,修正,改善,修正案
参考例句:
  1. The amendment was rejected by 207 voters to 143.这项修正案以207票对143票被否决。
  2. The Opposition has tabled an amendment to the bill.反对党已经就该议案提交了一项修正条款。
7 doctrines 640cf8a59933d263237ff3d9e5a0f12e     
n.教条( doctrine的名词复数 );教义;学说;(政府政策的)正式声明
参考例句:
  1. To modern eyes, such doctrines appear harsh, even cruel. 从现代的角度看,这样的教义显得苛刻,甚至残酷。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  2. His doctrines have seduced many into error. 他的学说把许多人诱入歧途。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
8 actively lzezni     
adv.积极地,勤奋地
参考例句:
  1. During this period all the students were actively participating.在这节课中所有的学生都积极参加。
  2. We are actively intervening to settle a quarrel.我们正在积极调解争执。
9 nurturing d35e8f9c6b6b0f1c54ced7de730a6241     
养育( nurture的现在分词 ); 培育; 滋长; 助长
参考例句:
  1. These delicate plants need careful nurturing. 这些幼嫩的植物需要精心培育。
  2. The modern conservatory is not an environment for nurturing plants. 这个现代化温室的环境不适合培育植物。
10 complacent JbzyW     
adj.自满的;自鸣得意的
参考例句:
  1. We must not become complacent the moment we have some success.我们决不能一见成绩就自满起来。
  2. She was complacent about her achievements.她对自己的成绩沾沾自喜。
11 attained 1f2c1bee274e81555decf78fe9b16b2f     
(通常经过努力)实现( attain的过去式和过去分词 ); 达到; 获得; 达到(某年龄、水平、状况)
参考例句:
  1. She has attained the degree of Master of Arts. 她已获得文学硕士学位。
  2. Lu Hsun attained a high position in the republic of letters. 鲁迅在文坛上获得崇高的地位。
12 aspiration ON6z4     
n.志向,志趣抱负;渴望;(语)送气音;吸出
参考例句:
  1. Man's aspiration should be as lofty as the stars.人的志气应当象天上的星星那么高。
  2. Young Addison had a strong aspiration to be an inventor.年幼的爱迪生渴望成为一名发明家。
13 humility 8d6zX     
n.谦逊,谦恭
参考例句:
  1. Humility often gains more than pride.谦逊往往比骄傲收益更多。
  2. His voice was still soft and filled with specious humility.他的声音还是那么温和,甚至有点谦卑。
14 basking 7596d7e95e17619cf6e8285dc844d8be     
v.晒太阳,取暖( bask的现在分词 );对…感到乐趣;因他人的功绩而出名;仰仗…的余泽
参考例句:
  1. We sat basking in the warm sunshine. 我们坐着享受温暖的阳光。
  2. A colony of seals lay basking in the sun. 一群海豹躺着晒太阳。 来自《简明英汉词典》
15 impedes c8c92d3198ba71918f3f4f2d50bb7bab     
阻碍,妨碍,阻止( impede的第三人称单数 )
参考例句:
  1. High packing density greatly impedes the cooling of the array. 高存贮密度很不利于阵列的散热。
  2. The inflexibility of the country's labor market seriously impedes its economic recovery. 该国劳工市场缺乏灵活性,这严重阻碍了它的经济恢复。
16 inhibits 7fbb1ac5e38d9e83ed670404679a2310     
阻止,抑制( inhibit的第三人称单数 ); 使拘束,使尴尬
参考例句:
  1. A small manufacturing sector inhibits growth in the economy. 制造业规模太小有碍经济增长。
  2. His bad English inhibits him from speaking freely. 他英语学得不好,这使他不能表达自如。
17 rejection FVpxp     
n.拒绝,被拒,抛弃,被弃
参考例句:
  1. He decided not to approach her for fear of rejection.他因怕遭拒绝决定不再去找她。
  2. The rejection plunged her into the dark depths of despair.遭到拒绝使她陷入了绝望的深渊。
18 isolated bqmzTd     
adj.与世隔绝的
参考例句:
  1. His bad behaviour was just an isolated incident. 他的不良行为只是个别事件。
  2. Patients with the disease should be isolated. 这种病的患者应予以隔离。
19 discourse 2lGz0     
n.论文,演说;谈话;话语;vi.讲述,著述
参考例句:
  1. We'll discourse on the subject tonight.我们今晚要谈论这个问题。
  2. He fell into discourse with the customers who were drinking at the counter.他和站在柜台旁的酒客谈了起来。
20 assessment vO7yu     
n.评价;评估;对财产的估价,被估定的金额
参考例句:
  1. This is a very perceptive assessment of the situation.这是一个对该情况的极富洞察力的评价。
  2. What is your assessment of the situation?你对时局的看法如何?
21 legitimacy q9tzJ     
n.合法,正当
参考例句:
  1. The newspaper was directly challenging the government's legitimacy.报纸直接质疑政府的合法性。
  2. Managing from the top down,we operate with full legitimacy.我们进行由上而下的管理有充分的合法性。
22 censored 5660261bf7fc03555e8d0f27b09dc6e5     
受审查的,被删剪的
参考例句:
  1. The news reports had been heavily censored . 这些新闻报道已被大幅删剪。
  2. The military-backed government has heavily censored the news. 有军方撑腰的政府对新闻进行了严格审查。
23 prosecuted Wk5zqY     
a.被起诉的
参考例句:
  1. The editors are being prosecuted for obscenity. 编辑因刊载污秽文字而被起诉。
  2. The company was prosecuted for breaching the Health and Safety Act. 这家公司被控违反《卫生安全条例》。
24 fully Gfuzd     
adv.完全地,全部地,彻底地;充分地
参考例句:
  1. The doctor asked me to breathe in,then to breathe out fully.医生让我先吸气,然后全部呼出。
  2. They soon became fully integrated into the local community.他们很快就完全融入了当地人的圈子。
25 implementation 2awxV     
n.实施,贯彻
参考例句:
  1. Implementation of the program is now well underway.这一项目的实施现在行情看好。
26 controversy 6Z9y0     
n.争论,辩论,争吵
参考例句:
  1. That is a fact beyond controversy.那是一个无可争论的事实。
  2. We ran the risk of becoming the butt of every controversy.我们要冒使自己在所有的纷争中都成为众矢之的的风险。
27 vehemence 2ihw1     
n.热切;激烈;愤怒
参考例句:
  1. The attack increased in vehemence.进攻越来越猛烈。
  2. She was astonished at his vehemence.她对他的激昂感到惊讶。
28 distinctive Es5xr     
adj.特别的,有特色的,与众不同的
参考例句:
  1. She has a very distinctive way of walking.她走路的样子与别人很不相同。
  2. This bird has several distinctive features.这个鸟具有几种突出的特征。
29 controversies 31fd3392f2183396a23567b5207d930c     
争论
参考例句:
  1. We offer no comment on these controversies here. 对于这些争议,我们在这里不作任何评论。 来自英汉非文学 - 历史
  2. The controversies surrounding population growth are unlikely to subside soon. 围绕着人口增长问题的争论看来不会很快平息。 来自辞典例句
30 partisan w4ZzY     
adj.党派性的;游击队的;n.游击队员;党徒
参考例句:
  1. In their anger they forget all the partisan quarrels.愤怒之中,他们忘掉一切党派之争。
  2. The numerous newly created partisan detachments began working slowly towards that region.许多新建的游击队都开始慢慢地向那里移动。
31 outrage hvOyI     
n.暴行,侮辱,愤怒;vt.凌辱,激怒
参考例句:
  1. When he heard the news he reacted with a sense of outrage.他得悉此事时义愤填膺。
  2. We should never forget the outrage committed by the Japanese invaders.我们永远都不应该忘记日本侵略者犯下的暴行。
32 theatrical pIRzF     
adj.剧场的,演戏的;做戏似的,做作的
参考例句:
  1. The final scene was dismayingly lacking in theatrical effect.最后一场缺乏戏剧效果,叫人失望。
  2. She always makes some theatrical gesture.她老在做些夸张的手势。
33 gender slSyD     
n.(生理上的)性,(名词、代词等的)性
参考例句:
  1. French differs from English in having gender for all nouns.法语不同于英语,所有的名词都有性。
  2. Women are sometimes denied opportunities solely because of their gender.妇女有时仅仅因为性别而无法获得种种机会。
34 orientation IJ4xo     
n.方向,目标;熟悉,适应,情况介绍
参考例句:
  1. Children need some orientation when they go to school.小孩子上学时需要适应。
  2. The traveller found his orientation with the aid of a good map.旅行者借助一幅好地图得知自己的方向。
35 attainable ayEzj8     
a.可达到的,可获得的
参考例句:
  1. They set the limits of performance attainable. 它们确定着可达到的运行限度。
  2. If objectives are to be meaningful to people, they must be clear, attainable, actionable, and verifiable. 如果目标对人们是具有意义的,则目标必须是清晰的,能达到的,可以行动的,以及可供检验的。
36 nurture K5sz3     
n.养育,照顾,教育;滋养,营养品;vt.养育,给与营养物,教养,扶持
参考例句:
  1. The tree grows well in his nurture.在他的培育下这棵树长得很好。
  2. The two sisters had received very different nurture.这俩个姊妹接受过极不同的教育。
37 injustices 47618adc5b0dbc9166e4f2523e1d217c     
不公平( injustice的名词复数 ); 非正义; 待…不公正; 冤枉
参考例句:
  1. One who committed many injustices is doomed to failure. 多行不义必自毙。
  2. He felt confident that his injustices would be righted. 他相信他的冤屈会受到昭雪的。
38 intervention e5sxZ     
n.介入,干涉,干预
参考例句:
  1. The government's intervention in this dispute will not help.政府对这场争论的干预不会起作用。
  2. Many people felt he would be hostile to the idea of foreign intervention.许多人觉得他会反对外来干预。
39 impeded 7dc9974da5523140b369df3407a86996     
阻碍,妨碍,阻止( impede的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  1. Work on the building was impeded by severe weather. 楼房的施工因天气恶劣而停了下来。
  2. He was impeded in his work. 他的工作受阻。
40 relished c700682884b4734d455673bc9e66a90c     
v.欣赏( relish的过去式和过去分词 );从…获得乐趣;渴望
参考例句:
  1. The chaplain relished the privacy and isolation of his verdant surroundings. 牧师十分欣赏他那苍翠的环境所具有的幽雅恬静,与世隔绝的气氛。 来自辞典例句
  2. Dalleson relished the first portion of the work before him. 达尔生对眼前这工作的前半部分满有兴趣。 来自辞典例句
41 emboldened 174550385d47060dbd95dd372c76aa22     
v.鼓励,使有胆量( embolden的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  1. Emboldened by the wine, he went over to introduce himself to her. 他借酒壮胆,走上前去向她作自我介绍。
  2. His success emboldened him to expand his business. 他有了成就因而激发他进一步扩展业务。 来自《简明英汉词典》
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